Koine Greek: Verbs - Subjunctive
|Subjunctive Verbs in Koine Greek|
|SERMONS, ESSAYS AND OPINIONS||
The subjunctive mood of a verb in Koine Greek is the form generally used to express potential or possibility.
The subjunctive in English is typically translated using the qualifying word "might". For example, "they might destroy" (λυωσιν) is in the subjunctive mood.
More commonly than subjunctives standing on their own, are subjunctives standing in special-case scenarios. These include
- Purpose Clause
- Indefinite Clause
- Emphatic Negative Future
- Future Condition
- `ινα + subjunctive = so that + subjunctive (e.g. `ινα λυωσιν = so that they might destroy)
- `οπως + subjunctive = so that + subjunctive
An indefinite clause expresses a sense of an unspecified nature. It is formed generally using the indefinite particle αν with the subjunctive.
- `οπου αν + subjunctive = where-ever + subjunctive
- `οταν + subjunctive = whenever + subjunctive
- `οστις + subjunctive or `ος + subjunctive = whoever + subjunctive
Emphatic Negative Future
The emphatic negative future subjunctive is a form of the subjunctive that conveys a definite sense of impossibility. For example:
- ου μη λυης = you certainly will not destroy
When the subjunctive stands alone in the first person plural form, it is likely that it is being used in its hortatory sense and is translated as "Let us...". For example:
- λυωμεν - Let us destroy
- In Revelation 19:7, χαιρωμεν is translated as Let us rejoice and αγαλλιωμεθα is translated as let us be gland and δωμεν is translated as let us give
The Future Condition is the form that communicates the idea "if" a certain event occurs, "then" a certain outcome will occur. This is technically known as a "third class condition" (see: Koine Greek: Conditions). The form is as follows:
- εαν + subjunctive + outcome = if + subjunctive then outcome
Subjunctives may be in the Present or Aorist tense. The Present and the Aorist forms of the subjunctive are often translated identically into English.
The forms for the Present Active Subjunctive are as follows:
- λυω - I might destroy
- λυης - you might destroy
- λυη - he / she / it might destroy
- λυωμεν - we might destroy
- λυητε - you might destroy (plural)
- λυωσιν - they might destroy
This paradigm is similar to the Present Active Indicative form, except that the vowel sounds have generally been lengthened
- ει becomes η (with a ι subscript)
- ε becomes η
- ο becomes ω
Present Passive (and Middle)
The forms for the Aorist Active Subjunctive are as follows:
- λυσω - I might destroy
- λυσης - you might destroy
- λυση - he / she / it might destroy
- λυσωμεν - we might destroy
- λυσητε - you might destroy
- λυσωσιν - they might destroy
There is no augment for the Aorist Subjunctive form.
This paradigm has the same endings as the Present Active form, except the ending is preceded by the characteristic σ of the Aorist tense.
The forms for the Aorist Passive Subjunctive are as follows:
- λυθω - I might be destroyed
- λυθης - you might be destroyed
- λυθη - he / she / it might be destroyed
- λυθωμεν - we might be destroyed
- λυθητε - you might be destroyed
- λυθωσιν - they might be destroyed
Like the other Aorist Subjunctive forms, there is no augment for Aorist Passive Subjunctive verbs.
This paradigm has the same endings as the Present Active form, except the ending is preceded by the characteristic θ of Aorist Passive verbs.
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