Difference between revisions of "Christian TV"

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==Christian Television Channels Online==
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'''Masturbation''' refers to [[sexual]] stimulation, especially of one's own [[sex organ|genitals]] ('''self masturbation''') and often to the point of [[orgasm]]<ref name="webmd">[http://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/guide/masturbation-guide Your Guide to Masturbation<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>, which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for [[sexual intercourse]]), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods.<ref>Based on "masturbation" in ''Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition'', Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003</ref> Masturbation is the most common form of [[autoeroticism]]{{Fact|date=July 2008}}, and the two words are often used as [[synonym]]s, although masturbation with a partner ([[mutual masturbation]]) is also common. [[Non-human animal sexual behavior#Autoeroticism (masturbation)|Animal masturbation]] has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.<ref>[http://www.petplace.com/horses/breeding-soundness-examination-of-the-stallion/page2.aspx Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion]</ref><!--Do not delete this reference.  It is a *named reference* and may be used elsewhere in the article:--><ref name="Bagemihl,1999">Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8</ref><ref>For further references, see also the main article [[Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation)]].</ref>
  
This is a partial list of Christian Television Channels Online. Please join us in adding all the Christian television channels in all languages from different parts of the world.  
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==Etymology==
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{{wiktionarypar|masturbation}}
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The word '''masturbation''' is believed to derive from either the [[Greek language|Greek]] word ''mezea'' (''μεζεα'', "penes") or the [[Latin]] ''manus'' ("hand") and the Latin ''turbare'' ("to disturb").<ref>{{cite book |last = Dally |first = Peter |title = The Fantasy Factor |year = 1975 |pages = 135 |publisher = George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited |ISBN = 0-297-76945-6}}</ref> A competing [[etymology]] based on the [[Latin]] ''manu stuprare'' ("to defile with the hand") is said by the [[Oxford English Dictionary]] to be an "old conjecture"<ref>OED, s.v. ''masturbation''</ref>.
  
===English Channels===
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While "masturbation" is the medical term for this practice, many other terms and expressions are in common use. In the vernacular, terms such as "pleasuring oneself", "wanking" and "jerking off" are common. See ''[[wikt:Wikisaurus:masturbate|masturbate]]'' in [[Wiktionary|Wikisaurus]] for many others.
  
===TBN===
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== Masturbation techniques ==
#[http://boss.streamos.com/wmedia-live/tbn/8031/500_tbn-tbn_050222.asx Watch TBN (wmp - broadband 500k)]  
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Ways of masturbating common to members of both sexes include pressing or rubbing the [[genital]] area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a [[pillow]]; inserting fingers or an object into the [[anus]] (see [[anal masturbation]]); and stimulating the penis or vulva with electric [[Vibrator (sensual)|vibrator]]s, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. Members of both sexes may also enjoy touching, rubbing, or pinching the [[nipple]]s or other [[erogenous zones]] while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply [[personal lubricant|lubricating]] substances to intensify sensation.
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=TBN Watch TBN]
 
#[http://www.tbn.org/watch/tbnlive/tbn56.ram Watch TBN (real - modem)]
 
#[http://www.tbn.org/watch/tbnlive/tbn100.ram Watch TBN (real - broadband 100k)]  
 
#[http://www.tbn.org/watch/tbnlive/tbn300.ram Watch TBN (real - broadband 300k)]  
 
#[http://www.tbn.org/watch/tbnlive/tbn500.ram Watch TBN (real - broadband 500k)]
 
#[http://www.tbn.org/ TBN Trinity Broadcasting] teaching/talk
 
#*[http://www.tbn.org/watch/broadcastschedule/ program schedule]
 
  
===CBN===
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Reading or viewing [[pornography]], or [[sexual fantasy]], are often common adjuncts to masturbation. Often people will call upon memories during masturbation. Masturbation activities are often [[ritualization|ritualised]]. Various [[sexual fetishism|fetishes]] and [[paraphilia]]s can also play a part in the masturbation ritual. Some potentially harmful or fatal activities include [[autoerotic asphyxiation]] and [[self-bondage]].
#[http://www.cbn.com/media/index.aspx?s=700club The 700 Club]
 
  
===The Church Channel===
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Some people get [[sexual pleasure]] by [[urethral play|inserting objects into the urethra]] (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows).<ref name="Alice05">{{cite web |last = |first = "Alice" |title = Go ask Alice!: Cock-stuffing |publisher = Columbia University, New York |date = 2005-02-18 |url = http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/3516.html |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref> If these objects are [[Urethral sounding|urethral sounds]], the practice is known as "sounding".<ref name="BME06">{{cite web |last = Various authors |first = |title = Urethral Sound |publisher = Body Modification Ezine |date = 2006-04-21 |url = http://wiki.bmezine.com/index.php/Urethral_Sound |format = html/wiki |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref> Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection.<ref name="JAAPA06">{{cite web |last = McPartlin |first = Daniel |coauthors = Adam P. Klausner, MD; Tristan T. Berry, MD |title = Case report: A foreign body in the urethra |publisher = Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants |date = 2005-09-09 |url = http://jaapa.com/issues/j20050901/articles/urethral0905.htm |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref> Some people masturbate by using [[automated erotic stimulation device|machines]] that simulate intercourse.  
#[http://www.churchchannel.tv/watch/cc100.asx Watch The Church Channel (wmp - broadband 100k)]
 
#[http://www.churchchannel.tv/watch/cc300.asx Watch The Church Channel (wmp - broadband 300k)]
 
#[http://www.churchchannel.tv/watch/cc56.asx Watch The Church Channel (wmp - modem)]
 
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=TCC Watch The Church Channel]
 
#[http://www.churchchannel.tv/ The Church Channel] preaching
 
#*[http://www.churchchannel.tv/schedule/ program schedule]
 
  
===COrner Stone TV===
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Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm<ref>[http://www.csis.hku.hk/~bruce/masturb1.html Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>. Doing this could lead to temporary discomfort due to [[pelvic congestion]].
#[http://www.ctvn.org/ Cornerstone TeleVision] Satelitte teaching / dramas
 
#[http://www.ctvn.org/schedule/schedule.html program schedule]  
 
#[http://www.ctnonline.com/webcast.asx Watch CTN (dsl)]
 
#[http://c1.liquidviewer.com/ctnbroadband Watch CTN (broadband)]
 
#[http://ctnonline.com/ CTN Christian Television] Tampa Bay, FL teaching/talk
 
#[http://ctnonline.com/webcast/p-guide.htm program schedule]  
 
#[http://www.ctni.org/ CTNi Christian Television International] satellite tv
 
#*[http://www.ctni.org/english/index-programming.html program schedule]
 
  
===Daystar===
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Austrian psychoanalyst [[Wilhelm Reich]] in his 1922 essay ''[[Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation]]'' tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies.
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=DayStarLive Watch Daystar]  
 
#[http://daystar.tv/ Daystar Television] teaching/talk
 
#*[http://www.skyangel.com/Programming/GuideChannelPopup.asp?Id=31 program schedule]
 
  
===Digital Bible Study===
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=== Female ===
#[http://www.digitalbiblestudy.com/ Digital Bible Study] Internet Only bible study / teaching
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Female masturbation techniques include a woman stroking or rubbing her [[vulva]], especially her [[clitoris]], with her [[index finger|index]] and/or [[middle finger]]s. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to repeatedly stroke its frontal wall where the [[Gräfenberg spot|g-spot]] is located.<ref name="Keesling99">{{cite web |last = Keesling |first = Barbara |title = Beyond Orgasmatron |publisher = Psychology Today |date = November/December 99 (Last Reviewed: 30 August 2004) |url = http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-19991101-000038&page=2 |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref>
#*[http://www.digitalbiblestudy.com/schedule.asp program schedule]  
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Masturbation aids such as a [[Vibrator (sensual)|vibrator]], [[dildo]] or [[Ben Wa balls]] can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a [[nipple]] with the free hand, if these are receptive areas for sexual stimulation. Anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. [[Personal lubricant|Lubrication]] is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when [[Sexual penetration|penetration]] is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their [[Vaginal lubrication|natural lubrication]] sufficient.
  
===Friends Forever===
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Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "[[dry hump|hump]]" the [[vulva]] and [[clitoris]] against it. Standing up a chair, the corner of an item of furniture or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing.  
#[http://www.christiannetcast.com/watch/player.asp?station=atwr-tv Watch Friends Forever]  
 
#[http://aroundtheworldradio.org/friendsforevertv.htm Friends Forever TV] Internet Only
 
  
===God TV===
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In the 1920s, [[Havelock Ellis]] reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs.<ref>Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Erotism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly." {{gutenberg|no=13610|name=Studies in the Psychology of Sex, v. I, by Havelock Ellis}}</ref>
#[http://www.god.tv/Media/GODTV-High.asx Watch God TV]  
 
#[http://www.god.tv The God Channel] Satelitte UK tv network
 
#[http://www.god.tv/Media/GODTV-USA.asx Watch God TV US] 
 
#[http://us.god.tv/ God TV US] Satellite tv network
 
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/asx_files/PrimeTimeChristianBroadcasting_300.asx Watch God's Learning Channel (broadband)]
 
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/asx_files/PrimeTimeChristianBroadcasting_43.asx Watch God's Learning Channel (modem)]
 
#[http://www.godslearningchannel.com/ God's Learning Channel] Satelitte teaching/preaching
 
#*[http://www.godslearningchannel.com/schedule.htm program schedule]
 
  
===Golden Eagle===
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Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Some masturbate using only pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing.  
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=GEB Watch Golden Eagle]
 
#[http://www.golden-eagle-tv.com/ Golden Eagle Broadcasting] teaching/talk
 
#*[http://www.golden-eagle-tv.com/GEBpropm.html program schedule]
 
  
===Skyguide===
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Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.<ref name="Koedt70">{{cite web |last = Koedt |first = Anne |title = The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm |publisher = Chicago Women's Liberation Union |date = 1970 |url = http://www.cwluherstory.org/classic-feminist-writings/myth-of-the-vaginal-orgasm.html |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref><ref name=kins>The Kinsey Institute [http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/ak-data.html#masturbation Data from Alfred Kinsey's studies]. Published online.</ref>
#[http://www.skyangel.com/Programming/GuideChannelPopup.asp?Id=33 skyguide]
 
  
===Good TV===
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Sex therapists will sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm, especially if they have not done so before.<ref name="Shuman06">{{cite web |last = Shuman |first = Tracy |title = Your Guide to Masturbation |publisher = WebMD, Inc./The Cleveland Clinic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology |date = 2006-02 |url = http://www.webmd.com/content/article/45/2953_487.htm |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref><ref name="Knowles02">{{cite web |last = Knowles |first = Jon |title = Masturbation — From Stigma to Sexual Health |publisher = Katharine Dexter McCormick Library/Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. |date = 2002-11 |url = http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/medical-sexual-health/masturbation-6360.htm |format = html |accessdate = 2006-07-29}}</ref>
#[http://www.goodtv.tv/goodtv.ram Watch Good TV]
 
#[http://www.goodtv.com.tw/ Good TV] Satelitte taiwanese tv
 
  
===Gospel videos===
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=== Male ===
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=GF Watch Gospel Flava]  
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[[Image:Masturbating man2.JPG|thumb|right|A man masturbating]]
#[http://www.gospelflava.com Gospel Flava TV] Internet Only gospel videos
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Male masturbation techniques are also influenced by a number of factors and personal preferences. Techniques may also differ between [[circumcision|circumcised]] and [[foreskin|uncircumcised]] males, as some techniques which may work for one can be quite painful for the other.  
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=GMTN Watch Gospel Music Television Network]  
 
#[http://www.gmtn.info/ Gospel Music Television] Satelitte southern gospel videos
 
  
===His Channel===
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The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the [[penis]] with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft until [[orgasm]] and [[ejaculation]] take place. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself. When uncircumcised, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the [[foreskin]]. This [[Gliding action#Function of gliding action|gliding motion]] of the foreskin reduces friction. When circumcised, there is more direct contact between the hand and the glans, thus a [[personal lubricant]] is sometimes used to reduce friction. Sometimes, if too much pressure is applied, it may be rubbed sore for a time.
#[http://www.hischannel.com/iptv.asx Watch His Channel (broadband 700kbs)]  
 
#[http://www.hischannel.com/dsl14862.asx Watch His Channel (broadband 230kbs)]
 
#[http://www.hischannel.com/ His Channel] Internet Only teaching/preaching
 
#*[http://www.hischannel.com/schedule-tv.html program schedule]
 
  
===Hope TV===
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Circumcised or not, men may rub or massage the [[Glans penis|glans]], the rim of the glans, and the [[frenular delta]].  
#[http://www.hopetv.org/ Hope TV] Satelitte teaching / preaching
 
#*[http://www.hopetv.org/schedule.php program schedule]
 
  
===Inspiration International===
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Another technique is to place just the index finger and thumb around the penis about halfway along the penis and move the skin up and down. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Another common technique is to lie face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow and rub the penis against it until orgasm is achieved. This technique may include the use of a [[simulacrum]], or artificial vagina.
#[http://www.ini.tv/ INI Inspiration International] Satelitte teaching/preaching
 
#*[http://titantvguide.titantv.com/apg/grid.aspx?siteId=1437 program schedule]
 
  
===Inspired Faith TV===
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There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others use their free hand to [[fondle]] their [[testicles]], [[nipples]], or other parts of their body. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of [[sexual intercourse]]. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform [[autofellatio]].
#[http://ifbn.inspiredfaith.org/inspiredfaithtv Watch Inspired Faith TV]  
 
#[http://inspiredfaith.org/ Inspired Faith Broadcasting TV] Internet Only messianic tv
 
  
===JC TV===
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The [[prostate]] gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to [[semen]]. As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or [[dildo]] inserted through the [[anus]] into the [[rectum]]. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the [[perineum]], can be pleasurable as well. Some men, also, enjoy [[anal sex|anal]] stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation.
#[http://www.jc-tv.net/watch/jc-tv200.asx Watch JC-tv (wmp - broadband 200k)]  
 
#[http://www.jc-tv.net/watch/jc-tv400.asx Watch JC-tv (wmp - broadband 400k)]  
 
#[http://www.jc-tv.net/watch/jc-tv56.asx Watch JC-tv (wmp - modem)]  
 
#[http://www.jc-tv.net/ JC-tv] music videos
 
#*[http://www.jc-tv.net/schedule/ program schedule]
 
  
===CDM internacional===
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Semen is sometimes ejaculated onto a [[facial tissue|tissue]] or some other item.
#[http://www.cdminternacional.com/cdm.asx Watch CDM]  
 
#[http://www.cdminternacional.com/ La Cadena Del Milagro Internacional] spanish tv
 
#*[http://www.cdminternacional.com/programacion.php program schedule]
 
  
===LivePrayer.com===
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A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the [[perineum]], about halfway between the [[scrotum]] and the [[anus]], just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as [[retrograde ejaculation]]). If repeated on a regular basis, this technique could cause long term damage due to the pressure put on the nerves and blood vessels in the perineum.
#[http://www.liveprayer.com/ LivePrayer.com The World's Prayer Meeting] Internet Only prayer
 
  
===LLBN Loma Linda Broadcasting===
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== Mutual masturbation ==
#[http://www.llbn.tv/ LLBN Loma Linda Broadcasting] Satellite talk/lifestyle/heatlh
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[[Image:Geiger-masturbation-mutuelle.jpg|thumb|right|[[Johann Nepomuk]], [[watercolor]], 1840.]]
#*[http://www.llbn.tv/index.php?option=com_na_content&task=view&id=59&showico=1&Itemid=61 program schedule]
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{{Main|Mutual masturbation}}
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''Mutual masturbation'' is a [[sexual act]] where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands.  
  
===LoveWorld===
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It is part of a full repertoire of sexual intercourse, where it may be used as an interlude, [[foreplay]] or as an alternative to penetration. For some people, [[non-penetrative sex]] or frottage is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others. Participants who do not want full sexual intercourse thus still enjoy a mutual sexual act.
#[http://66.70.28.122/asxfiles-live/nj45winlive9823.asx Watch LoveWorld]  
 
#[http://www.loveworldchristiannetwork.org/ LoveWorld Christian] Satellite african &amp; european tv
 
#*[http://www.loveworldchristiannetwork.org/broadcast_schedule.php program schedule]
 
  
===Power Living===
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Mutual masturbation is practiced by people of all [[sexual orientation]]s. If used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the aim may be to preserve [[virgin]]ity or to prevent pregnancy. Some people choose it as it achieves sexual satisfaction without actual sex, possibly seeing it as an alternative to [[casual sex]].
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=COGTN Watch Power Living] The Message NetworkInternet Only teaching/preaching
 
  
===The Miracle Channel===
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== Masturbation frequency, age and sex ==
#[http://70.87.8.31/miracle-sat Watch The Miracle Channel]
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Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to [[sexual tension]], [[hormone]] levels influencing [[sexual arousal]], sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture.<ref> E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7396686&query_hl=21&itool=pubmed_docsum]</ref> Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.<ref>"Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation." ''Ceylon Med. J.'' 2006 Sept., 51(3):121-2.</ref><ref>"Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery." ''Epilepsy Behav.'' 2004 Feb., 5(1):133-6.</ref><ref>"Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female." ''Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.'' 2005 Dec., 59(6):739-42.</ref>
#[http://www.miraclechannel.ca/ The Miracle Channel] Lethbridge, AB, Canada teaching/talk
 
#*[http://www.miraclechannel.ca/index.php?page=chnl_tvs program schedule]
 
  
===MiracleNet TV===
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Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. [[Alfred Kinsey|Alfred Kinsey's]] studies have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan.<ref name=kins/> Similar results have been found in a British national probability survey. It was found that 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.<ref name=gerr>Gerressu, M., Mercer, C.H., Graham, C.A., Wellings, K. and Johnson, A.M. (2007). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17333329 Prevalence of Masturbation and Associated Factors in a British National Probability Survey]. ''Archives of Sexual Behavior'', Published online.</ref>
#[http://www.miraclenet.tv/ MiracleNet TV] Satelitte teaching/preaching
 
#*[http://www.miraclenet.tv/prog_sched.html program schedule]
 
  
===The Power Network===
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"Forty-eight female college students were asked to complete a sexual attitudes questionnaire in which a frequency of masturbation scale was embedded. Twenty-four of the women (the experimental group) then individually viewed an explicit modeling film involving female masturbation. One month later, all subjects again completed the same questionnaire. Subjects in the experimental group also completed a questionnaire evaluating aspects of the film. Results indicated that the experimental group reported a significant increase in the average monthly frequency of masturbation, as compared to the control group. This same group, however, reported that the film had no effect on sexual attitudes or behavior."
#[http://www.streamingfaith.com/faithpass/index.aspx?nsn=Power Watch The Power Network]
 
#[http://www.streamingfaith.tv/ The Power] Internet Only teaching/preachingformerly Streaming Faith One
 
  
===Music Videos===
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A 2004 survey by [[Toronto]] magazine [[NOW (magazine)|''NOW'']] was answered by an unspecified number of thousands.<ref>[http://www.nowtoronto.com/minisites/loveandsex/2004/s_survey_results.php NOW's Love and Sex Guide 2004]</ref> The results show that an overwhelming majority of the males – 81% – began masturbating between the ages of 10 and 15. Among females, the same figure was a more modest majority of 55%. (Note that surveys on sexual practices are prone to ''self-[[selection bias]]''.) It is not uncommon however to begin much earlier, and this is more frequent among females: 18% had begun by the time they turned 10, and 6% already by the time they turned 6. Being the main outlet of [[child sexuality]], masturbation has been observed in very young children. In the book ''Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America'', by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis (although he does not ejaculate). Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience [[orgasm]]."
#[http://broadcast.global-mix.net/?m=rmusictv&.wvx= Watch R Music TV]
 
#[http://www.rmusictv.com/ R Music TV] Satellite music videos
 
#[http://broadcast.global-mix.net/?m=revelationtv&.wvx= Watch Revelation TV]  
 
#[http://www.revelationtv.com/ Revelation TV] Satelitte uk tv
 
#[http://www.ongrace.com/streaming/WebcastRIT.asx Watch RIT (broadband)]  
 
#[http://www.rittv.com.br/ RIT Rede Internacional de Televis�o] brazilian tv network
 
#[http://www.rittv.com.br/programacao/ program schedule]
 
  
===Secret Place Faith-Vision===
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The ''NOW'' magazine survey has it that the frequency of masturbation declines after the age of 17. Many males masturbate daily, or even more frequently, well into their 20s and sometimes far beyond. This decline is more drastic among females, and more gradual among males. While females aged 13–17 masturbated almost once a day on average (and almost as often as their male peers), adult women only masturbated 8–9 times a month, compared to the 18–22 among men. Adolescent youths report being able to masturbate to ejaculation around six times per day, though some men in older middle age report being hard pressed to ejaculate even once per day. On the other hand healthy 21-28 year old males are able to masturbate at least 8-10 times per day if they are not stressed. The survey does not give a full demographic breakdown of respondents, however, and the sexual history of respondents to this poll, who are readers of an urban Toronto lifestyle magazine, may not extend to the general population.
#[http://spfv.org/ Secret Place Faith-Vision] Internet Only teaching / preaching
 
  
===Shepards Chapel===
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It appears that females are less likely to masturbate while in a [[heterosexual]] relationship than men. Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. One study reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.<ref>Heilborn, M.L. and Cabral, C.S. (2006). [http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2006000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse]. ''Cad Saude Publica, 22, 7,'' pp. 1471-81. Epub 2006 Jun 14.</ref><ref name=gerr/><ref>Menon, A., McAllister, R.H., Watson, W. and Watson, S. (2006). [http://jop.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/1/125 Increased libido associated with quetiapine]. ''Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 1,'' pp. 125-7.</ref><ref>Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002 May;27(4):489-503.</ref>
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===Shine TV, New Zealand Christian channel===
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Among some cultures, such as the [[Hopi]] in [[Arizona]], the [[Wogeno]] in [[Oceania]], and the [[Dahomeans]] and [[Namu]] of Africa, masturbation is encouraged, including regular masturbation between males. In certain [[Melanesian]] communities this is expected between older and younger boys. One interesting twist is the [[Sambia]] tribe of [[New Guinea]]. This tribe has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which involve frequent ejaculation through [[fellatio]]. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is nurtured for years from an early age through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.<ref>[http://faculty.mdc.edu/jmcnair/Joepages/The%20Sambia.htm The Sambia]</ref>
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===Smile of A Child TV===
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Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age.<ref>Cited by Hewlett, B. S. (1996) Diverse contexts of human infancy, in Ember, C. & Ember, M. (Eds.) Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall</ref> Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size. Frequent ejaculation through masturbation from an early age fosters frequent ejaculation well into adulthood.<ref>The clinical outcome of childhood masturbation. Turk J Pediatr. 2000 Oct-Dec;42(4):304-7.</ref>
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===Enlace===
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Masturbation is becoming accepted as a healthy practice and safe method for sharing pleasure without some of the dangers that can accompany intercourse. It is socially accepted and even celebrated in certain circles. Group masturbation events can be easily found online. [[Masturbate-a-thon|Masturbation marathons]] are yearly events and are occurring across the globe. These events provide a supportive environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants talk openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe their pleasure.<ref>[http://www.masturbate-a-thon.com Masturbate-a-thon by The Center For Sex & Culture]</ref><ref>[http://www.viewlondon.co.uk/masturbation-marathon-london_index.html viewlondon.co.uk article on Masturbation Marathon London]</ref>
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===TCT Network===
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== Evolutionary utility ==
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Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse.  
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===Tele Vida Abundante===
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Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and up to 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them.<ref>{{cite book |last = Baker |first = Robin |title = Sperm Wars: The Science of Sex |publisher = Diane Books Publishing Company |date=June 1996 |isbn = 978-0788160042}}</ref><ref name=Ejaculate_manipulation_by_females>{{cite journal |last = Baker |first = Robin R. |coauthors = Bellis, Mark A. |year = 1993 |month = Nov |title = Human sperm competition: Ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm. |journal = Animal Behaviour |volume = 46 |issue = 5 |pages = p887, 23p |url = http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3768816}}</ref> Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.<ref name=Ejaculate_manipulation_by_females/>
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===AtalaiaNet===
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In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will [[Sperm competition|compete]] more effectively.<ref>{{cite paper |author = Thomsen, Ruth |title = Sperm Competition and the Function of Masturbation in Japanese Macaques |publisher = Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München |date=October 2000 |url = http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/archive/00000105/}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last = Baker |first = Robin R. |coauthors = Bellis, Mark A. |year = 1993 |month = Nov |title = Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation. |journal = Animal Behaviour |volume = 46 |issue = 5 |pages = p861, 25p |url = http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3768815}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last = Shackelford |first = Todd K. |coauthors = Goetz, Aaron T. |year = 2007 |month = Feb |title = Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans. |journal = Current Directions in Psychological Science |volume = 16 |issue = 1 |pages = p47-50 |url = http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x}}</ref>
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===TV Novo Tempo===
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==Health and psychological effects==
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=== Benefits ===
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The physical benefits of masturbation and having an orgasm or ejaculating creates heightened arousal while [[epinephrine]] courses through the body, producing the flushed face, shallow breath and post-climactic [[Euphoria (emotion)|euphoria]].<ref>{{Citation |title = Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships |date = [[April 19]] |year = 2007 |url = http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php |accessdate = July 2007}}</ref> It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve [[clinical depression|depression]]{{Fact|date=September 2008}}, stress and lead to a higher sense of [[Self-esteem|self-worth]] (Hurlbert & Whittaker, 1991). Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship.<ref>{{Citation |title = Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships |date = [[April 19]] |year = 2007 |url = http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php |accessdate = July 2007}} However, the alleged benefits of masturbation must be qualified with the acknowledgment that the practice is just as likely to exacerbate feelings of loneliness. </ref>
  
===TV Nuevo Tiempo===
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[[Mutual masturbation]], the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". Witnessing a partner masturbate is an educational activity to find out the method a partner pleases him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched.<ref>{{Citation |title = Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships |date = [[April 19]] |year = 2007 |url = http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php |accessdate = September 2007}}</ref>
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===TVU===
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In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of [[The Cancer Council Australia]]<ref>[http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x/abs/ Sexual factors and prostate cancer]</ref> concluded that frequent masturbation by males appears to help prevent the development of [[prostate cancer]]. The study also indicated that this would be more helpful than ejaculation through sexual intercourse because intercourse can transmit diseases that may increase the [[Cervical cancer#Causes|risk of cancer]] instead. Also, frequent ejaculation is more easily obtained and sustained over time with the aid of masturbation.
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===UBN===
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A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity. Excerpt, "The association between frequency or orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recoded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95)." That is, a difference between any two subjects appeared when one subject ejaculated at around two or more more times per week than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer.<ref>{{Citation
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| title = Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study
#[http://www.ubntv.org/ Unity Broadcasting] Booneville, MS teaching
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| date = December 20
#*[http://www.ubntv.org/programtv53.html program schedule]
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| year = 1997
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| url = http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/315/7123/1641
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| accessdate = July 2007 }}</ref>
  
===WACX===
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Masturbation is also seen as a sexual technique that protects individuals from the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Support for such a view, and for making it part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General [[Joycelyn Elders]] during the Clinton administration.
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===WETN TV===
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Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.
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===WHT===
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Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout.<ref>{{cite journal | coauthors = Benjamin Graber, Scott Balogh, Denis Fitzpatrick and Shelton Hendricks
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| title = Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men
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| journal = Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment
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| volume = 4
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| issue = 2
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| pages = 151-165
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| publisher = Springer Netherlands
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| date = June, 1991
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| url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/m28k5475630n5872/
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| doi = 10.1007/BF00851611
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| id = 1079-0632 (Print) 1573-286X (Online)
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| accessdate = 2004-12-28 }}</ref> Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance.
  
===The Worship Network===
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=== Blood pressure ===
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Both sex and masturbation lower blood pressure. A small study has shown that in one test group, recent full intercourse resulted in the lowest average blood pressure in stressful situations. Masturbation then led to lower blood pressure than did no recent sexual activity.<ref>Brody, Stuart. "Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity." ''Biological Psychology'', Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2006, pages 214-222.</ref>
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===Three Angels Broadcasting===
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=== Insertion ===
#[http://www.3abn.org/tv.cfm 3ABN TV: Three Angels Broadcasting] Satelitte teaching/talk show
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Objects inserted into the vagina, anus/rectum or urethra should be clean and of a kind that will not scratch or break. Care should be taken not to fully insert anything into the anus – any object used should have a flared or flanged base; otherwise retrieval can require medical intervention. Modern [[dildo]]s and [[Butt plug|anal plugs]] are designed with this feature.
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===Alkarma TV===
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=== Pregnancy ===
#[http://www.alkarmatv.com/en/watch_us_live_stream.html Alkarma TV]
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Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see ''[[Non-penetrative sex#Mutual masturbation|mutual masturbation]]'') can result in pregnancy only if [[semen]] contacts the [[vulva]]. Masturbation with a partner can also theoretically result in transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by contact with bodily fluids.
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===Australian Christian Channel===
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=== Problems for males ===
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A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma or injury during intercourse may rarely sustain a [[penile fracture]]<ref>[http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3415.htm eMedicine article on Penile Fracture and Trauma]</ref> or suffer from [[Peyronie's disease]].<ref>[http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/549.html American Academy of Family Physicians article on Peyronie's Disease: Current Management]</ref> [[Phimosis]] is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back".<ref>[http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/phimosis.htm netdoctor.co.uk article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)]</ref> In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.
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===Arabic Christian TV===
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=== Compulsive masturbation ===
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[[Sigmund Freud]] argued that every normal child usually experiments with many types of [[autoerotic]] sexual stimulation. Social repressions of sexuality reached their peak in the [[Victorian era]] when popular authors wrote books threatening young children with [[mental deficiency]] or [[insanity]] if they indulged in any form of masturbation. Actually there is no scientific evidence of any causative relationship between autoeroticism and any form of mental disorder. Though mentally disturbed persons characteristically show poor judgment in expressing sexuality, this may be understood as a symptom rather than a cause.
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Each child however, must learn the appropriate social and legal limitations relating to expressing sexuality.
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Masturbating frequently presents no physical, mental or emotional risk in itself,<ref>[http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/ohe/library/Sexhealth/articles/masturbating.htm University of Pennsylvania Office of Health Education article on masturbation]</ref> but masturbation can be used to relieve boredom or stress. In either case, as with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of the boredom or of the stress, rather than try to repress the masturbation.<ref>[http://www.chmed.com/mod.php?mod=userpage&menu=1907&page_id=142&PHPSESSID=a76dc0f6fb1882506f5666b63fb98062 Childrens Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. article on Masturbation in Early Childhood]</ref>
  
===Latino Christian TV===
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There is some discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to the existence or validity of [[sexual addiction]]s. Nevertheless, there are lists of warning signs such as when sexual activity affects a person's ability to function in everyday life, or is placing them at risk, for example, of pursuing illegal or destructive activities. Very frequent and compulsive masturbation may be seen as a sign of sexual addiction.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/relationships/sex_and_sexual_health/probs_sexaddiction.shtml BBC Relationships: Addicted to sex]</ref>
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==External Links==
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== Masturbation in history and society ==
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=== Antiquity ===
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There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric [[rock painting]]s around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of [[Malta]], depicts a woman masturbating.<ref>"The [[Ħaġar Qim]] woman is... masturbating, with one hand languidly supporting her head. " Taylor, Timothy. ''Uncovering the prehistory of sex'', British Archaeology, no 15, June 1996: [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba15/ba15feat.html].</ref> However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
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From the earliest records, ancient [[Sumer]] had a relaxed attitude toward sex, and masturbation was a popular technique for enhancing potency, either alone or with a partner.<ref>Dening, Sarah.  ''The Mythology of Sex''. Macmillian 1996, ISBN 978 0028612072</ref><ref>Dening, Sarah, ''The Mythology of Sex'' [http://www.ishtartemple.org/myth.htm Chapter 3]</ref>
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Male masturbation became an even more important image in [[ancient Egypt]]: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god [[Atum]] was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the [[Nile]] was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Egyptian [[pharoahs]], in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile.<ref> Johnathan Margolis, "O: The intimate history of the orgasm", 2003. p134</ref>
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The ancient [[Greeks]] had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was ''anaphlan,'' which roughly translates as "up-fire".
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[[Diogenes of Sinope|Diogenes]], speaking in jest, credited the god [[Hermes]] with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son [[Pan (mythology)|Pan]], who was pining for [[Echo (mythology)|Echo]] but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds.<ref>Dio Crysostom, ''Discourses,'' iv.20</ref>
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=== Religious views ===
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{{main|Religious views on masturbation}}
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:''Also see [[Sexuality and religion|Sexuality and Religion]] for broad coverage of this topic''
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Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from completely impermissible<ref>{{cite web
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|url = http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a6.htm#2352
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|title = Catechism of the Catholic Church
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|accessdate = 2007-10-08
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|quote = Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action.
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}}</ref> to encouraged as a way to achieve greater spirituality (see, for example [[Tantric sexuality]] and [[Taoist sexual practices]]). In the modern [[St. Priapus Church]], group male masturbation is a form of worship.<ref>Wayne Dynes (ed., 1990). ''Encyclopedia of Homosexuality'' (New York: Garland) p. 779.</ref>
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=== Philosophical arguments ===
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[[Immanuel Kant]] regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In the ''[[Metaphysics of Morals]]'' (1797) he made the ''[[a posteriori]]'' argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of [[suicide]]). He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.
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Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however (see [[Masturbation#Medical attitudes|medical attitudes]]).
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=== Medical attitudes ===
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{{Refimprovesect|date=March 2008}}
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The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be ''Onania'', an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer [[impotence]], [[gonorrhea]], [[epilepsy]] and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop.
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[[Image:Sexpatent01-excerpt.png|thumb|left|A [[patented]] device designed to prevent masturbation by inflicting electric shocks upon the perpetrator, by ringing an alarm bell, and through spikes at the inner edge of the tube into which the penis is inserted. The entire patent document: [[Media:Sexpatent01.png|Page 1]], [[Media:Sexpatent02.png|2]], [[Media:Sexpatent03.png|3]], [[Media:Sexpatent04.png|4]].]]
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One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in ''Onania'' was the notable Swiss physician [[Samuel-Auguste Tissot]]. In 1760, he published ''L'Onanisme'', his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in [[Lausanne]], [[Switzerland]] as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of [[gout]] and [[rheumatism]], weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."
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Though Tissot's ideas are now considered [[hypothesis|conjectural]] at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as [[Kant]] and [[Voltaire]] – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.
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This continued well into the [[Victorian Era]], where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social [[conservatism]] and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time.<ref>[http://www.noharmm.org/paige.htm The Ritual of Circumcision]</ref><ref>Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne. ''Masturbation: the history of a great terror''. New York: Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 0-312-22443-5.</ref> There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded."<ref>[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a5/Sexpatent02.png Surgical Appliance]</ref> Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by [[John Harvey Kellogg|Dr. John Harvey Kellogg]] (inventor of [[corn flakes]]) and [[Sylvester Graham|Rev. Sylvester Graham]] (inventor of [[Graham cracker]]s). The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, [[infibulation]], restraining devices like [[chastity belt]]s and [[straitjacket]]s, [[cauterization]] or – as a last resort – wholesale [[Excision|surgical excision]] of the genitals. Routine neonatal [[circumcision]] was widely adopted in the [[United States]] and the [[United Kingdom|UK]] at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also [[History of male circumcision#Male circumcision to prevent masturbation|History of male circumcision]]). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.
 +
[[Image:Chastity belt Heyser 0.png|thumb|Image of a [[chastity belt]] from a patent document. For entire document, see: [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 1.png|Page 1]], [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 2.png|2]], [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 3.png|3]], [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 4.png|4]], [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 5.png|5]], [[:Image:Chastity belt Heyser 6.png|6]]]]
 +
 
 +
At the same time, the supposed medical condition of [[hysteria]]&mdash;from the Greek ''hystera'' or uterus&mdash;was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams.<ref name=Maines>{{cite book|id=ISBN 0-8018-6646-4|title=The Technology of Orgasm: "Hysteria", the Vibrator, and Women's Sexual Satisfaction|author=Rachel P. Maines|publisher=The Johns Hopkins University Press | location=Baltimore|year=1999}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when [[H. Havelock Ellis]], in his seminal 1897 work ''Studies in the Psychology of Sex'', questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow."
 +
 
 +
[[Robert Baden-Powell]], the founder of [[The Scout Association]], incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of ''[[Scouting for Boys]]'' warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. [[F. W. W. Griffin]], editor of ''The Scouter,'' had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing [[H. Havelock Ellis|Ellis]]' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."
 +
 
 +
The works of Sexologist [[Alfred Kinsey]] during the 1940s and 1950s insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".
 +
 
 +
In 1994, when the [[Surgeon General of the United States]], Dr. [[Joycelyn Elders]], mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school [[curriculum|curricula]] that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign,<ref>[http://www.jackinworld.com/library/articles/elders.html JackinLibrary: Joycelyn Elders]</ref> with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of ''how'' to masturbate. Many believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.
 +
 
 +
=== Law ===
 +
The legal status of masturbation throughout history has varied from virtually unlimited acceptance to complete illegality. In a 1640s law code for the [[Puritan]] colony of [[New Haven, Connecticut]] in the 17th century "[[blasphemy|blasphemers]], [[Homosexuality|homosexuals]] and masturbators" were eligible for the [[Capital punishment|death penalty]].<ref>{{cite book
 +
| last = James
 +
| first = Lawrence
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| authorlink = Lawrence James
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| title = The Rise and Fall of the British Empire
 +
| publisher = St. Martin's Griffin
 +
|date=[[September 15]], [[1997]]
 +
| pages = 41
 +
| isbn = 978-0312169855 }} The context is a discussion of the social habits of the early North American colonists.</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Masturbate-a-thon ===
 +
{{main | Masturbate-a-thon}}
 +
[[Image:CSC Herme Masturbate-a-Thon Logo Original for Wiki.jpg|thumb|right]]
 +
Masturbate-a-thons are public, charity events that are "intended to encourage people to explore safer sex, talk about masturbation and lift the taboos that still surround the subject."<ref name="Masturbate-a-thon.co.uk">{{cite web
 +
| title = Masturbate-a-thon website
 +
| publisher = Masturbate-a-thon
 +
| date = 2006-08-04
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| url = http://www.masturbate-a-thon.co.uk/
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| format = html
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| accessdate = 2006-08-06}}</ref> May is considered "Masturbation Month" by sex-positive organizations and activists, including [[Betty Dodson]], [[Joani Blank]], [[Susan Block]], [[Kyla Zellers]], [[Carol Queen]], and [[Gary Francis Fanning Jr.]].
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 +
== Euphemisms ==
 +
A large variety of [[euphemism]]s and [[dysphemism]]s exist which describe masturbation. For a complete list of terms, see the entry for ''[[wikt:Wikisaurus:masturbate|masturbate]]'' in [[Wiktionary|Wikisaurus]].
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 +
== Masturbation in media ==
 +
===Paintings and drawings===
 +
[[Image:Klimt Mulher sentada.jpg|thumb|A Young Woman Masturbating, depicted by [[Gustav Klimt]]]]
 +
 
 +
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric [[rock painting]]s around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of [[Malta]], depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
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 +
===Film===
 +
<!-- Please expand this section, but do not attempt to compile a list of every masturbation scene ever filmed.  Any unsourced content will be removed. -->
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A number of films feature masturbation scenes.
 +
 
 +
===Music===
 +
In popular music, there are a handful of songs that deal with the issue of masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "[[My Ding-a-Ling]]" by [[Chuck Berry]] and "[[Pictures of Lily]]" by [[The Who]].<ref>"''Merely a ditty about masturbation and the importance of it to a young man. I was really diggin' at my folks who, when catching me at it, would talk in loud voices in the corridor outside my room. "Why can't he go with girls like other boys?''" Quote by [[Pete Townshend]]</ref>
 +
 
 +
Some of the more recent popular songs are "[[Turning Japanese]]" by [[The Vapors]], a reference to the Oriental facial features people get at the moment of climax and "[[She Bop]]" by [[Cyndi Lauper]] which was so obviously about masturbation that it was required to have a [[parental advisory]] sticker. In an interview Lauper admitted recording the song naked. "[[I Touch Myself]]" by [[Divinyls]] is a celebration of female masturbation. "[[Touch of My Hand]]" by [[Britney Spears]] is also about how female masturbation is normal.
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The song [[Orgasm Addict]] by The [[Buzzcocks]] also features lyrics centered around the theme of masturbation. Another song, [[Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too]] By [[Say Anything]] has a chorus that repeats the lines "She Touched Herself".
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The song [[Masturbation]] by rock group [[Mindless Self Indulgence]] also deals with the concept of auto-erotic activity in a [[Punk subculture|punk]] framework.
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===Literature=== 
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In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of [[Philip Roth]]'s novel ''[[Portnoy's Complaint]]'' in that country due to its masturbation references. The censorship led to public outcry at the time. <ref>[http://www.crikey.com.au/Politics/20060829-Censorship-and-Don-Chipp.html Crikey - Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder - Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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== Masturbation in other animal species ==
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{{main | Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation)}}
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Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.<ref name="Bagemihl,1999"/>

Revision as of 05:19, 21 September 2008

Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, especially of one's own genitals (self masturbation) and often to the point of orgasm[1], which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods.[2] Masturbation is the most common form of autoeroticismTemplate:Fact, and the two words are often used as synonyms, although masturbation with a partner (mutual masturbation) is also common. Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.[3][4][5]

Etymology

Template:Wiktionarypar The word masturbation is believed to derive from either the Greek word mezea (μεζεα, "penes") or the Latin manus ("hand") and the Latin turbare ("to disturb").[6] A competing etymology based on the Latin manu stuprare ("to defile with the hand") is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to be an "old conjecture"[7].

While "masturbation" is the medical term for this practice, many other terms and expressions are in common use. In the vernacular, terms such as "pleasuring oneself", "wanking" and "jerking off" are common. See masturbate in Wikisaurus for many others.

Masturbation techniques

Ways of masturbating common to members of both sexes include pressing or rubbing the genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with electric vibrators, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. Members of both sexes may also enjoy touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricating substances to intensify sensation.

Reading or viewing pornography, or sexual fantasy, are often common adjuncts to masturbation. Often people will call upon memories during masturbation. Masturbation activities are often ritualised. Various fetishes and paraphilias can also play a part in the masturbation ritual. Some potentially harmful or fatal activities include autoerotic asphyxiation and self-bondage.

Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows).[8] If these objects are urethral sounds, the practice is known as "sounding".[9] Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection.[10] Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse.

Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm[11]. Doing this could lead to temporary discomfort due to pelvic congestion.

Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his 1922 essay Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies.

Female

Female masturbation techniques include a woman stroking or rubbing her vulva, especially her clitoris, with her index and/or middle fingers. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to repeatedly stroke its frontal wall where the g-spot is located.[12] Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand, if these are receptive areas for sexual stimulation. Anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Lubrication is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient.

Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "hump" the vulva and clitoris against it. Standing up a chair, the corner of an item of furniture or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing.

In the 1920s, Havelock Ellis reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs.[13]

Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Some masturbate using only pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing.

Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.[14][15]

Sex therapists will sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm, especially if they have not done so before.[16][17]

Male

A man masturbating

Male masturbation techniques are also influenced by a number of factors and personal preferences. Techniques may also differ between circumcised and uncircumcised males, as some techniques which may work for one can be quite painful for the other.

The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft until orgasm and ejaculation take place. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself. When uncircumcised, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin. This gliding motion of the foreskin reduces friction. When circumcised, there is more direct contact between the hand and the glans, thus a personal lubricant is sometimes used to reduce friction. Sometimes, if too much pressure is applied, it may be rubbed sore for a time.

Circumcised or not, men may rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta.

Another technique is to place just the index finger and thumb around the penis about halfway along the penis and move the skin up and down. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Another common technique is to lie face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow and rub the penis against it until orgasm is achieved. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina.

There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform autofellatio.

The prostate gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to semen. As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well. Some men, also, enjoy anal stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation.

Semen is sometimes ejaculated onto a tissue or some other item.

A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation). If repeated on a regular basis, this technique could cause long term damage due to the pressure put on the nerves and blood vessels in the perineum.

Mutual masturbation

Template:Main Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands.

It is part of a full repertoire of sexual intercourse, where it may be used as an interlude, foreplay or as an alternative to penetration. For some people, non-penetrative sex or frottage is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others. Participants who do not want full sexual intercourse thus still enjoy a mutual sexual act.

Mutual masturbation is practiced by people of all sexual orientations. If used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the aim may be to preserve virginity or to prevent pregnancy. Some people choose it as it achieves sexual satisfaction without actual sex, possibly seeing it as an alternative to casual sex.

Masturbation frequency, age and sex

Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture.[18] Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.[19][20][21]

Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's studies have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan.[15] Similar results have been found in a British national probability survey. It was found that 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.[22]

"Forty-eight female college students were asked to complete a sexual attitudes questionnaire in which a frequency of masturbation scale was embedded. Twenty-four of the women (the experimental group) then individually viewed an explicit modeling film involving female masturbation. One month later, all subjects again completed the same questionnaire. Subjects in the experimental group also completed a questionnaire evaluating aspects of the film. Results indicated that the experimental group reported a significant increase in the average monthly frequency of masturbation, as compared to the control group. This same group, however, reported that the film had no effect on sexual attitudes or behavior."

A 2004 survey by Toronto magazine NOW was answered by an unspecified number of thousands.[23] The results show that an overwhelming majority of the males – 81% – began masturbating between the ages of 10 and 15. Among females, the same figure was a more modest majority of 55%. (Note that surveys on sexual practices are prone to self-selection bias.) It is not uncommon however to begin much earlier, and this is more frequent among females: 18% had begun by the time they turned 10, and 6% already by the time they turned 6. Being the main outlet of child sexuality, masturbation has been observed in very young children. In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis (although he does not ejaculate). Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm."

The NOW magazine survey has it that the frequency of masturbation declines after the age of 17. Many males masturbate daily, or even more frequently, well into their 20s and sometimes far beyond. This decline is more drastic among females, and more gradual among males. While females aged 13–17 masturbated almost once a day on average (and almost as often as their male peers), adult women only masturbated 8–9 times a month, compared to the 18–22 among men. Adolescent youths report being able to masturbate to ejaculation around six times per day, though some men in older middle age report being hard pressed to ejaculate even once per day. On the other hand healthy 21-28 year old males are able to masturbate at least 8-10 times per day if they are not stressed. The survey does not give a full demographic breakdown of respondents, however, and the sexual history of respondents to this poll, who are readers of an urban Toronto lifestyle magazine, may not extend to the general population.

It appears that females are less likely to masturbate while in a heterosexual relationship than men. Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. One study reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.[24][22][25][26]

Among some cultures, such as the Hopi in Arizona, the Wogeno in Oceania, and the Dahomeans and Namu of Africa, masturbation is encouraged, including regular masturbation between males. In certain Melanesian communities this is expected between older and younger boys. One interesting twist is the Sambia tribe of New Guinea. This tribe has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which involve frequent ejaculation through fellatio. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is nurtured for years from an early age through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.[27]

Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age.[28] Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size. Frequent ejaculation through masturbation from an early age fosters frequent ejaculation well into adulthood.[29]

Masturbation is becoming accepted as a healthy practice and safe method for sharing pleasure without some of the dangers that can accompany intercourse. It is socially accepted and even celebrated in certain circles. Group masturbation events can be easily found online. Masturbation marathons are yearly events and are occurring across the globe. These events provide a supportive environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants talk openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe their pleasure.[30][31]

Evolutionary utility

Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse.

Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and up to 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them.[32][33] Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.[33]

In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively.[34][35][36]

Health and psychological effects

Benefits

The physical benefits of masturbation and having an orgasm or ejaculating creates heightened arousal while epinephrine courses through the body, producing the flushed face, shallow breath and post-climactic euphoria.[37] It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depressionTemplate:Fact, stress and lead to a higher sense of self-worth (Hurlbert & Whittaker, 1991). Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship.[38]

Mutual masturbation, the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". Witnessing a partner masturbate is an educational activity to find out the method a partner pleases him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched.[39]

In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia[40] concluded that frequent masturbation by males appears to help prevent the development of prostate cancer. The study also indicated that this would be more helpful than ejaculation through sexual intercourse because intercourse can transmit diseases that may increase the risk of cancer instead. Also, frequent ejaculation is more easily obtained and sustained over time with the aid of masturbation.

A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity. Excerpt, "The association between frequency or orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recoded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95)." That is, a difference between any two subjects appeared when one subject ejaculated at around two or more more times per week than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer.[41]

Masturbation is also seen as a sexual technique that protects individuals from the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Support for such a view, and for making it part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration.

Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.

Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout.[42] Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance.

Blood pressure

Both sex and masturbation lower blood pressure. A small study has shown that in one test group, recent full intercourse resulted in the lowest average blood pressure in stressful situations. Masturbation then led to lower blood pressure than did no recent sexual activity.[43]

Insertion

Objects inserted into the vagina, anus/rectum or urethra should be clean and of a kind that will not scratch or break. Care should be taken not to fully insert anything into the anus – any object used should have a flared or flanged base; otherwise retrieval can require medical intervention. Modern dildos and anal plugs are designed with this feature.

Pregnancy

Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see mutual masturbation) can result in pregnancy only if semen contacts the vulva. Masturbation with a partner can also theoretically result in transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by contact with bodily fluids.

Problems for males

A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma or injury during intercourse may rarely sustain a penile fracture[44] or suffer from Peyronie's disease.[45] Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back".[46] In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.

Compulsive masturbation

Sigmund Freud argued that every normal child usually experiments with many types of autoerotic sexual stimulation. Social repressions of sexuality reached their peak in the Victorian era when popular authors wrote books threatening young children with mental deficiency or insanity if they indulged in any form of masturbation. Actually there is no scientific evidence of any causative relationship between autoeroticism and any form of mental disorder. Though mentally disturbed persons characteristically show poor judgment in expressing sexuality, this may be understood as a symptom rather than a cause. Each child however, must learn the appropriate social and legal limitations relating to expressing sexuality. Masturbating frequently presents no physical, mental or emotional risk in itself,[47] but masturbation can be used to relieve boredom or stress. In either case, as with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of the boredom or of the stress, rather than try to repress the masturbation.[48]

There is some discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to the existence or validity of sexual addictions. Nevertheless, there are lists of warning signs such as when sexual activity affects a person's ability to function in everyday life, or is placing them at risk, for example, of pursuing illegal or destructive activities. Very frequent and compulsive masturbation may be seen as a sign of sexual addiction.[49]

Masturbation in history and society

Antiquity

There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating.[50] However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.

From the earliest records, ancient Sumer had a relaxed attitude toward sex, and masturbation was a popular technique for enhancing potency, either alone or with a partner.[51][52]

Male masturbation became an even more important image in ancient Egypt: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the Nile was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Egyptian pharoahs, in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile.[53]

The ancient Greeks had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was anaphlan, which roughly translates as "up-fire".

Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds.[54]

Religious views

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Also see Sexuality and Religion for broad coverage of this topic

Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from completely impermissible[55] to encouraged as a way to achieve greater spirituality (see, for example Tantric sexuality and Taoist sexual practices). In the modern St. Priapus Church, group male masturbation is a form of worship.[56]

Philosophical arguments

Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In the Metaphysics of Morals (1797) he made the a posteriori argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.

Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however (see medical attitudes).

Medical attitudes

Template:Refimprovesect The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop.

A patented device designed to prevent masturbation by inflicting electric shocks upon the perpetrator, by ringing an alarm bell, and through spikes at the inner edge of the tube into which the penis is inserted. The entire patent document: Page 1, 2, 3, 4.

One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."

Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as Kant and Voltaire – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.

This continued well into the Victorian Era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time.[57][58] There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded."[59] Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.

Image of a chastity belt from a patent document. For entire document, see: Page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams.[60]

Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow."

Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."

The works of Sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".

In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign,[61] with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate. Many believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.

Law

The legal status of masturbation throughout history has varied from virtually unlimited acceptance to complete illegality. In a 1640s law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut in the 17th century "blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators" were eligible for the death penalty.[62]

Masturbate-a-thon

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CSC Herme Masturbate-a-Thon Logo Original for Wiki.jpg

Masturbate-a-thons are public, charity events that are "intended to encourage people to explore safer sex, talk about masturbation and lift the taboos that still surround the subject."[63] May is considered "Masturbation Month" by sex-positive organizations and activists, including Betty Dodson, Joani Blank, Susan Block, Kyla Zellers, Carol Queen, and Gary Francis Fanning Jr..

Euphemisms

A large variety of euphemisms and dysphemisms exist which describe masturbation. For a complete list of terms, see the entry for masturbate in Wikisaurus.

Masturbation in media

Paintings and drawings

A Young Woman Masturbating, depicted by Gustav Klimt

There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.

Film

A number of films feature masturbation scenes.

Music

In popular music, there are a handful of songs that deal with the issue of masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "My Ding-a-Ling" by Chuck Berry and "Pictures of Lily" by The Who.[64]

Some of the more recent popular songs are "Turning Japanese" by The Vapors, a reference to the Oriental facial features people get at the moment of climax and "She Bop" by Cyndi Lauper which was so obviously about masturbation that it was required to have a parental advisory sticker. In an interview Lauper admitted recording the song naked. "I Touch Myself" by Divinyls is a celebration of female masturbation. "Touch of My Hand" by Britney Spears is also about how female masturbation is normal.

The song Orgasm Addict by The Buzzcocks also features lyrics centered around the theme of masturbation. Another song, Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too By Say Anything has a chorus that repeats the lines "She Touched Herself".

The song Masturbation by rock group Mindless Self Indulgence also deals with the concept of auto-erotic activity in a punk framework.

Literature

In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of Philip Roth's novel Portnoy's Complaint in that country due to its masturbation references. The censorship led to public outcry at the time. [65]

Masturbation in other animal species

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Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.[4]

  1. Your Guide to Masturbation
  2. Based on "masturbation" in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003
  3. Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8
  5. For further references, see also the main article Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation).
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  11. Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love
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  13. Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Erotism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly." Template:Gutenberg
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  15. 15.0 15.1 The Kinsey Institute Data from Alfred Kinsey's studies. Published online.
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  18. E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter. [1]
  19. "Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation." Ceylon Med. J. 2006 Sept., 51(3):121-2.
  20. "Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery." Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Feb., 5(1):133-6.
  21. "Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female." Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2005 Dec., 59(6):739-42.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Gerressu, M., Mercer, C.H., Graham, C.A., Wellings, K. and Johnson, A.M. (2007). Prevalence of Masturbation and Associated Factors in a British National Probability Survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Published online.
  23. NOW's Love and Sex Guide 2004
  24. Heilborn, M.L. and Cabral, C.S. (2006). Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse. Cad Saude Publica, 22, 7, pp. 1471-81. Epub 2006 Jun 14.
  25. Menon, A., McAllister, R.H., Watson, W. and Watson, S. (2006). Increased libido associated with quetiapine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 1, pp. 125-7.
  26. Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002 May;27(4):489-503.
  27. The Sambia
  28. Cited by Hewlett, B. S. (1996) Diverse contexts of human infancy, in Ember, C. & Ember, M. (Eds.) Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
  29. The clinical outcome of childhood masturbation. Turk J Pediatr. 2000 Oct-Dec;42(4):304-7.
  30. Masturbate-a-thon by The Center For Sex & Culture
  31. viewlondon.co.uk article on Masturbation Marathon London
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  38. Template:Citation However, the alleged benefits of masturbation must be qualified with the acknowledgment that the practice is just as likely to exacerbate feelings of loneliness.
  39. Template:Citation
  40. Sexual factors and prostate cancer
  41. Template:Citation
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  43. Brody, Stuart. "Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity." Biological Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2006, pages 214-222.
  44. eMedicine article on Penile Fracture and Trauma
  45. American Academy of Family Physicians article on Peyronie's Disease: Current Management
  46. netdoctor.co.uk article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)
  47. University of Pennsylvania Office of Health Education article on masturbation
  48. Childrens Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. article on Masturbation in Early Childhood
  49. BBC Relationships: Addicted to sex
  50. "The Ħaġar Qim woman is... masturbating, with one hand languidly supporting her head. " Taylor, Timothy. Uncovering the prehistory of sex, British Archaeology, no 15, June 1996: [2].
  51. Dening, Sarah. The Mythology of Sex. Macmillian 1996, ISBN 978 0028612072
  52. Dening, Sarah, The Mythology of Sex Chapter 3
  53. Johnathan Margolis, "O: The intimate history of the orgasm", 2003. p134
  54. Dio Crysostom, Discourses, iv.20
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  56. Wayne Dynes (ed., 1990). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality (New York: Garland) p. 779.
  57. The Ritual of Circumcision
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  59. Surgical Appliance
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  62. Template:Cite book The context is a discussion of the social habits of the early North American colonists.
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  64. "Merely a ditty about masturbation and the importance of it to a young man. I was really diggin' at my folks who, when catching me at it, would talk in loud voices in the corridor outside my room. "Why can't he go with girls like other boys?" Quote by Pete Townshend
  65. Crikey - Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder - Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder