Koine Greek: Verbs

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Verbs in Koine Greek


A verb is a "doing word" like Γραφω, which means "I am writing".

In Koine Greek there are numerous aspects to the verb that don't exist in English, and it takes a significant amount of time to become familiar with all the uses of the verbs.

Grammatical components of a verb in Greek

The root or stem of a verb can be modified to give it different meanings. A verb has the following components

  • Person
    • First Person (I or we)
    • Second Person (You)
    • Third Person (He / she / it or they)
  • Number
    • Singular
    • Plural
  • Tense
  • Voice
    • Active
    • Middle
    • Passive
  • Mood
    • Indicative - simple statement
    • Imperative - a command
    • Subjunctive - possible or potential

For example, the verb Γραφω means "I am writing" or "I write"

  • First person - the subject is the person who says the word
  • Singular - the subject refers to one person, not a group
  • Present - the verb describe an action that is occurring or ongoing, i.e. it has a continuous action; usually it implies (but not always) the action is occurring in the present time
  • Active - the subject is doing the verb
  • Indicative

Tense of a verb

The tense of a verb has two component

  • Time
  • Aspect

Time may be either past, present or future, and tends to be the most important part of a verb's tense in English

Aspect refers to the how the action unfolds, and tends to be the most important part of a verb in Koine Greek. Aspect may be either

  • Undefined
  • Continuous
  • Resultative



Return to Koine Greek


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