Koine Greek: Contract Verbs

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Contract Verbs in Koine Greek
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CONTENTS

Lesson

Contract verbs are those verbs whose stem forms end in εω or αω or οω. When forming their various endings in conjugating, the ending undergoes changes.

Contraction Rules for Present and Imperfect Forms

εω

εω + ε becomes ει

εω + ο becomes ou

εω + αι / οι / η / ω / ου become αι / οι / η / ω respectively

Example

Using the verb καλεω, looking at the Present Active Indicative forms

  • καλω - I call
  • καλεις - You call
  • καλει - He / she / it calls
  • καλουμεν - We call
  • καλειτε - You (plural) call
  • καλουσιν - They call

αω

αω + ε / η become α

αω + ο / ου / ω become ω

αω + ι / αι / ει / οι become αι

Example

Using the verb πλαναω, looking at the Present Active Indicative forms

  • πλανω - I deceive
  • πλανας - You deceive
  • πλανα - He / she / it deceives
  • πλανωμεν - We deceive
  • πλανατε - You (plural) deceive
  • πλανωσιν - They deceive

οω

οω + α / ε / ου become ου

οω + ι / αι / οι / ει become οι

οω + η / ω become ω

Example

Using σταυροω, looking at the Present Active Indicative forms

  • σταυρω - I crucify
  • σταυροις - You crucify
  • σταυροι - He / she / it crucifies
  • σταυουμεν - We crucify
  • σταυρουτε - You (plural) crucify
  • σταυρουσιν - They crucify

Further rules

Lengthening for Aorist and Future Forms

Prior to adding the σ or θ in the Aorist or Future forms of an εω verb a lengthening occurs where εω is changed to η

Prior to adding the σ or θ in the Aorist or Future forms of an αω verb a lengthening occurs where αω is changed to η

Prior to adding the σ or θ in the Aorist or Future forms of an οω verb a lengthening occurs where οω is changed to ω

Present Infinitive Forms

For the Present Infinitive form of contract verbs, the standard rules of contraction do not apply. For the Present Infinitive form the following changes occur:

  • εω becomes ειν
  • αω becomes αν
  • οω becomes ουν

Quotes

Links


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