Koine Greek: Alphabet
The Koine Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters. All Greek was originally written in upper case, without spaces between words, and without added punctuation. Today, however, most texts are written in lower case, with punctuation and spaces between words.
Below is a table showing the letters.
There are also versions of several vowels with a small iota underneath (or beside in the case of capitols): ᾼ ᾳ, ῌ ῃ, ῼ ῳ. It is believed that these represent ancient diphthongs, but the pronunciation is not altered in the time of any Greek writing we can know.
Three possible accents can be put on Greek vowels: the acute ´, the grave (pronounces 'grahv') ` and the circumflex. The circumflex should appear as an upside crescent over the vowel, but some fonts use the caron (^) or even the tilde (~). It is thought the these different symbols represented rising and falling pitch, like modern Chinese, but by the time of our literature, they only indicate accent or stress.
Over the initial syllable of a word that begins with a vowel, there will always be either a rough (‘) or a smooth (’) breathing sign. Rough means a 'h' sound and smooth means the lack of extra sound. A 'Ρ' (Rho) in the initial position also takes a breathing sign, typically the rough. How precisely this altered pronunciation is not known.